Hidden-nomics (4): Cleopatra

So many legends and anecdotes have enveloped the historical person that is Queen Cleopatra, and I think that what fascinates most of us are the ones that refer to her great beauty and charm– qualities that were able to get the better of not one but TWO mighty conquerors, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.

Just how beautiful was this woman? Her adversaries have referred to the leader as a genuine femme fatale who used seduction as a means of getting her way. This derogatory title, coupled with the Hollywood movies that cast beautiful women to portray her, made it very easy to make people believe that she was indeed goddess-like in appearance.

However, recent evidence shows that she was not as physically attractive as people thought. Images of the late queen imprinted on coins or reliefs show a woman with a prominent nose and a protruding chin. While one could argue that beauty standards might have changed overtime and Cleopatra could have been truly considered beauteous back then, is physical appearance enough to seduce two of the smartest, most strategizing and cunning men of her time?

Some of the more “practical-minded” readers would say to themselves that sexual prowess could’ve been the key. But bear in mind that she was with Julius Ceasar for four years and with Mark Antony for a decade… sexual satisfaction alone wouldn’t have sustained such long-lasting relationships. (Ask around, if you must!)

So, for the sake of fun, imagine for a minute or two that the ancient ruler was more plain-looking than what we have been told… What then could she possibly have possessed to catch the interest of these two powerful men? to make great warriors bend their knees before her?

Could it be the same thing that made her the leader that we know she was?  the thing that made her gain so many enemies who tried to destroy her reputation by calling her of a sl*t?

She must have been a vessel filled with something truly valuable, but at the same time intangible! While that would be what historians and aficionados call “charm”, we economists label as “human capital”. In Cleopatra’s case, a magnificent and high-yielding one.

The World Economic Forum’s Human Capital Report defines it as:

the skills and capacities that reside in people and that are put to productive use.  This resource must be invested in and leveraged efficiently in order for it to generate returns.

First of all, when it comes to the initial investment, think about it: as a princess, her health was in the hands of the best doctors, she was well-fed, fiercely protected from the smallest mosquito to other lurking dangers (be it natural or man-made), she was exquisitely clothed and guarded from cold or heat, she was sheltered in palaces and this humble servant would dare bet that she was loved and spoiled by the people who surrounded her. Thus, the physical wellbeing she gained from these attentions have made her strong, less sickly, and have allowed her brain to develop well enough to absorb the many lessons she was taught.

As one would expect, her formation and training was certainly top-level as she was well-educated in maths and sciences. She was also well-versed in politics, spoke several languages and had access to the works of the greatest thinkers, so most probably she was also well-read. All of these experiences in turn must have worked their way into her mind, encouraging her creativity.

Accordingly, when it comes to the returns on these investments,  BBC History mentions that “she was a highly intelligent woman and an astute politician, who brought prosperity and peace to a country that was bankrupt and split by civil war.” These are impressive returns for a thriving society!

Lastly, as human capital is also comprised of personality attributes, it must be mentioned that many Egyptologists agree on her having been a witty woman with a good sense of humor. Add to that the strong personality of anybody belonging to her social and economic class and you have the perfect ingredients for a woman who could easily disarm you after 2 minutes of meeting her. I rest my case.

Cleopatra might have or might not have looked like Angelina Jolie, but as looks are subjective (aside from the fact that they fade), we could be sure that she offered more than just a pretty face.

As for being a man-eating, seducing and devious tramp? nothing but venomous words from someone envious. Perhaps a man.

 

 

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Conversation 2: Questions Regarding the Union of European Nations (Part 2)

Disclaimer: the contents featured in the following conversations do not necessarily reflect the author’s opinion.

Two winters ago, overheard in a café somewhere in the north…

Daughter in law (D): I can’t believe those beggars (shakes head). How can they can stomach using their own children to beg for money even during cold, winter months? The parents should be reprimanded, and the children be taken to foster care. And if they don’t want it, then they should go look for jobs.

Mother in law (M): I know. Most of them are Romanians or Bulgarians. Worse is, they form groups of 3 or 4 and pick pockets! I don’t want them here.

D: You know that’s not a politically-correct thing to say, right?

M: I don’t care. They shouldn’t be here. Mind you, I’m talking about the beggars and the pick pockets. Those who are working should stay. But the rest should be deported. They don’t contribute to anything here.

D: Still…

M: No, you listen to me. My friends and I always see a beggar at the entrance of a supermarket back home. She’s there everyday from morning until past midday. So one day, one of my friends offered her to work as a domestic aid. Guess what she answered?

D: Obviously she said she didn’t want to.

M: Exactly! the nerve! I felt really indignant. I wasn’t able to help myself so I told her, “Oh, so you must really be more comfortable begging, rather than exerting extra effort and getting a job, huh?”. She stared at me and I had to keep on walking. I was so mad.

D: I wonder why they don’t want to work. I mean, even if we conclude that it’s more comfortable to just stretch out your arms for people to drop coins in your hands… a job is still more stable, not to say secure choice for the person and his or her family.

M: Me? I wonder why they don’t just beg in their own countries. Romania and Bulgaria are already part of the European Union. They are already receiving funds to develop their economies and to subsidize low-income people. Why would they choose to come here when they could easily stay at their homes and receive government aid? Much like the people in this country, who refuse to be under-employed because their lives are more comfortable in their houses while they receive unemployment allowance…

D: Well, if you put it that way… if they chose to come here despite of what you just pointed out, then the easy answer would be that, the funds don’t reach to where they should. That is to say, those who manage the funds must be pocketing it for themselves.

M: Isn’t a clean, transparent governance part of the requisites to be an EU member?

D: Yes, but the markets promised by those countries are far more important for the Union. You know? so certain countries are more or less assured of having people buy their goods.

M: … (makes a face)

D: So, are we ordering more coffee or what?

*-*

It was the beginning of summer 2016 and four friends were riding the InterRail en route to Brussels…

Friend 1 (1): What just happened yesterday?

Friend 2 (2): Oh f*ck, the Brits voted Brexit, that’s what happened! silly fools…

Friend 3 (3): Tell that to them. I’m sure they feel even superior, if possible.

Friend 4 (4): Oooookay, no need to insult or cause any offense to anyone…!

2: As much as I respect you, I must say, your people are crazy, guillible, a**holes! Ha-ha! I’m sorry, I’ve never been this entertained since last year’s Eurovision…

4: Well, in the defense of my people, I should say, “We know what we’re doing”. But really, I don’t think we do. So yeah, you must be on to something there! Haha!

1: That’s like a big, fat slap on EU’s face, don’t you think? That’s like a really, really bad break up… no, no! It’s the promise of a very ugly divorce…

3: So much for a “union”…

(Everybody snickers)

3: I’m very curious as to how Brussels would manage this situation. I mean, how will the EU stand as a strong competition for other economic blocks when its nations appear divided?

2: You’re in a shrink’s mood today, aren’t you? Could you take a break? We’re on holidays!

4: No, no, wait… she’s right. If you look at it, the EU needs more than all the super glue it could collect to present a united, well, presentation.

1: To project, dude! to project… we’re on holidays from school, not from using our brains…!

4: Yeah, whatever…

2: Hey, the shrink might be right. Just this morning I heard from the radio about how different Northern Europe is to Southern Europe. And not just character-wise, mind you.

1: Now that you mention it, well yes, it makes sense. And wasn’t that the argument of those who were anti-single currency advocates? that basically the difference in the standards of living, reflected in prices, could do more harm than good for those entering in the single currency zone?

3: Actually I wanted to point out the difference between the left-wing Europeans and the right-wing ones. You know, those who want to steer the Union towards a Superstate versus those who aim for Federalism… It’s not enough that all politicians and decision-makers want a better Europe for the Europeans. They have to map out how to achieve that.

2: Yes, we know. The spenders versus the austere ones.

3: Well, you have to spend SOMETHING to guarantee a minimum, decent quality of life for the citizens!

1: Or you could save up for the rainy days…

3: BUT WE ARE IN THE RAINY DAYS!

4: Yeah, well, you can aaaall relax, as there’s no point in arguing. The left-wingers would soon be outnumbered anyway, if not banished from Brussels…

3. So basically you’re saying that we’ll be better off scratching our balls?

4. Or scratching it for each other, if you’re so bent over helping your fellowman.

2: Heeey! I’m the tactless brute of the group! Don’t take that away from me!

*-*

Early autumn last year, an uncle and nephew take a walk in a park…

Nephew (N): I’m really excited! Soon I’ll be living in a different country, with an interesting job… even if the pay’s not the best, at least I get to have this experience.

Uncle (U): Good for you. I hope you meet a nice girl and settle down.

N: I’m not going there to find a bride! But I heard the women are pretty over there…

U: Yes they are. So don’t get married, just hook up with as much girls as possible. He he!

N: (Blushes) Anyway, I feel kind of sad, though.

U: Well, homesickness is normal. But I guess your mother would visit you every month so no need to be sad about missing her! (snorts)

N: No, I feel sad because all through my student life, I was a scholar. All my school expenses were paid for by the government. And now, the thought of “serving” another country makes me feel bad for ours. I really wanted to give back.

U: Hm…

N: Anyway, one thing is to feel bad because of that. Another is to feel awful when I realized that only capital and goods can truly freely move around EU. Movement of labor is still very much restricted.

U: I’m listening.

N: This system is giving young people like me very few choices. Either stay in your country and be bored out of your wits as you’ll be unemployed. Or, go find a job somewhere else in the EU, where you’ll have a theoretical “advantage” above applicants from countries outside of it.

U: There’s the choice of working outside the EU.

N: Yes, but the point is to be closer to home.

U: Okay. Go on. Why do you say the movemet of labor is restricted?

N: For starters, I met recruiters who prioritize candidates from local universities. WHY? Anybody could be just as good as their locally-produced graduates.

U: What else?

N: I heard that I won’t be receiving my social security card for sure at least 6 months. So whatever health expenses I would have during the waiting period, I’d have to shoulder myself. Why? I mean, I can understand if it’s a month, if they want to wait for my tax. But 6 months? I’m an EU citizen!

U: Hmp!

N: I mean, sure, they’d reimburse me for the expenses but it wouldn’t be automatic, I’ll have to wait for some weeks. I really don’t understand. All this would simply discourage foreigners to work in their country. Meh… but, wouldn’t it be more enriching if labor markets were more open?

U: Enriching for some, not all. Especially not for the politicians.

N: Are you changing the subject again because you want to talk about politics and complain about that long-haired guy?

U: Listen. Whenever there’s an initiative or a feasible idea which is good for the general population but is not being implemented, that is because the politicians wouldn’t get anything from it. Think. What would garner more votes? a promise to open up the labor market and toughen the competition for all job applicants? or perhaps a promise to protect and prioritize national workers against “invaders”, threatening to “flood” the labor market with their offer of “cheaper” salaries?

N: Hm…

U: Believe me, if you were a citizen of your future new home, you’d be offered a permanent contract. But you’re not, I mean, you can’t influence elections over there. You mean nothing to the political class.

N: Oh well! I guess the good news is that I could be returning home soon, huh?

U: Not if you find a girl to marry, you won’t! (winks)

-The end-

Click here to read Part 1 and here to read Conversation 1.

What do Motherhood, Women’s Issues and International Cooperation on Development have in common?

While the smarter lot of you mentally ennumerate the common denominator of these three most important aspects of my life, let me get ahead and share what’s on my mind: MEDDLERS. I’m thinking about meddlers.

1. Motherhood and meddlers

I’ve only been a mother for 20 months, and one thing I can tell you for sure is that there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution to the same problem suffered by babies and mothers. Despite of this fact, there are those who still insist on imposing their beliefs, recipes and answers on other people.

Generally, I’ve observed that mothers are usually open to suggestions. Yet, I can’t help but notice the initial reactions to an advice they reject: insistence, further display of proof on the recommendation’s effectiveness, openly unfair judgement and finally, criticism. Surely, one should not have to go through all these just because they decide not to follow an advice. As for the “well-meaning” purveyors of knowledge… don’t they understand the fact that each of us is molded by our particular circumstances, pasts, beliefs and aspirations? Therefore, the solutions or remedies we end up choosing are adapted to our unique situation.

I always wonder whether “wanting the best” for the mother and the baby is the real reason why some people really force their opinion on others. The way I see it, if somebody truly desires the best for the other, then there must first be comprehension: of the problem, of the context and most importantly, of the diversity. This would allow for a better flow of communication. This would facilitate the process of achieving that “best” for the person in need.

In my short experience in motherhood, I learned that happy babies (a common goal for parents) result from being well-fed, well-rested and being around happy caretakers. Equally important is the confidence with which their caretakers do their jobs: if the caretaker is relaxed, the baby is most probably also going to be relaxed. So basically for me, what would really help mothers taking care of a baby is to feel empowered, to have self-confidence and be convinced that they’re doing a good job in raising a human being. The rest can be learned from books and online fora.

I’m lucky to be living where I am, to have resources that I could tap and people who truly support me. This period of my life would be much tougher otherwise.

2. Women’s Issues: when the champions become the meddlers

Currently, I find that that the foundation of women’s rights movement from the past has been eroded in time. I’m talking about solidarity and compassion. These two characteristics are strongly present in the feminine and have fueled the fight for women’s freedom and equality (equity) with men. Lately I’ve been noticing though, that a lot of arguments supporting the advancement of women’s rights sound more of a modern-day colonization than a genuine concern for our sisters’ well-being and progress. By “wanting the best” for all of us women, the very champions for our rights and development are forgetting that even though women may have the same basic needs and rights, the manner of procuring what they need, and the way with which they exercise their rights (if ever they choose to, at all) should be delegated to them- they know better than us what it means in their own societies to advance and progress. They know better than us how they want to live their own lives.

Consider how women’s rights movements started locally, where women gathered and started the battle for a more just treatment socially, economically, and politically, to name a few. When globalization came about, it was only natural for these initiatives to be projected onto other territories, crossing the national frontiers. Even though the intention was (it still is) noble, the explanation of its necessity as well as the method of implementing it are both flawed. Flawed because I believe some activists skipped a couple of vital steps in order to practice solidarity and compassion: inquiring and then listening. One can’t help but think some simply assumed that women in Sub-Saharan Africa have the exact same concerns as the ones living in Phoenix, Arizona.

From then on, a certain type of mentality has been imposed and women who did not adhere to such beliefs were criticized and in some cases, even marginalized by those who were supposedly fighting for their sake. Ironic.

3. International Cooperation on Development: helping or meddling?

When I graduated from college, the main lesson that really stuck was: “There is not a ‘one-size-that-fits-all’ solution to the same problem experienced by two or more different groups/communities. The answer should always be adapted to the specificities of each situation. “

The goal of exerting efforts towards cooperation for international development is to redistribute resources: from those who have them to those who do not. Obviously. Easy enough to understand. Now comes the dilemma of “how” to do it.

Studies have already proven that solutions imposed by developed countries with no grassroots basis usually end up becoming a waste: of money, time, effort and natural resources. Any Developmental Economist would agree that the solutions must come from a collaborative effort between the one who’s helping and the receiving end. That’s why it’s called “cooperation”, right?

However, it has always been the donor “wanting the best”, the donor’s criteria that seemed to dominate in this field: what they believe is “just”, what they think is “effective”, and what they “know those people need”. Thankfully, times are changing and workers in international cooperation are more sensitive to this topic. More and more, the aid given to a target community takes the form of enhancing the existing, local capacities rather than imposing a foreign technique. There is still a long way to go but awareness of this issue is already a big step forward.

Conclusions

While motherhood is a relatively new event in my life, it has deepened many notions in me, and is currently opening up other aspects of my understanding that I never even thought existed. On the contrary, women and development issues have always been part of my life, having grown up in a family whose bread and butter comes from the intent to make this world a better place.

Knowing what I know, I try to believe that it is truly the sense of compassion that moves people to torturously insist on the reliability of their solutions. I try to convince myself that they simply wish to see in others the same fruitful effects of their applied techniques.

Unfortunately, no two situations are equal. So basing on this, the person receiving the advice may consider that the proposed solution doesn’t fit his situation.

In my constant need to map out methods, this idea occurred to me: within the framework of “helping”, I suggest that under the “advice” category, two sub-categories be opened in the form of advice accepted and advice rejected. Help that was given or offered doesn’t have to end in relaying an opinion and leaving it as that. A person with a real concern to help, to make a change, would see if the other would take up on his counsel or not. And in the case where it is rejected, he would try to find out why; perhaps not to annoyingly try to solve the problem, but to learn.

Advice

Learning would mean the world between the meddlers and the “legit” bearers of help. An informed person in front of another who’s in a dilemma could do more by simply listening, than one who would blindly exert an effort to achieve a change in the situation.

I encourage you to think about it.

Adulting and Money Management (3.3): The Money that I Owe

Adulting and Money Management (3.3): The Money that I Owe

On How I Acquired Loans Responsibly

The first time I formally owed money was when I took on a store credit to buy a bed. I was 22 years old and just moved out of my parents’ house.

Needless to say, I was very nervous when I signed the papers. I grew up in a family where borrowing money is a big no-no and I have always been told that it could bring a lot of misery and trouble. I’ve seen families fight, children who cut all contact with parents and even friends who stopped talking to each other because of money lent and borrowed to one another. Because of all that, I was afraid to get any kind of credit and was doubtful about my ability to honor the payments. It didn’t matter that I had a one year contract at work, neither that I had 8 months to pay it off, nor the fact that there was no interest rate applied (the store had a special promotion).

Knowing what I know now, I only wish somebody could’ve told me that:

  1. at some point in life, it would be necessary for me to borrow money,
  2. there are ways to not be enslaved by loans and,
  3. it is possible to live happily with debt, if one borrowed money responsibly.

Resultado de imagen de responsible loan

Image courtesy of: http://mzansilive.co.za/

The importance of taking the time to honestly reflect

So far, no debt has financially strained me to a cracking point. I guess the reason is because I think more than twice before acquiring a loan of any kind. All the scary stories and the horrible experiences I witnessed from peers and friends have served as a starting point in each and every debt decision I’ve ever made.

I usually go by the motto, “If you can’t buy it in cash, you can’t afford it”. So whenever faced with a buying dilemma, first I evaluate the usefulness or the value of what I’m going to buy:

-How long will I use/enjoy the item?

-Will its value increase our decrease over time?

-Can I sell the item if I find it of no use to me in the future?

Secondly, I examine my current financial standing:

-Why can’t I afford it?

-Is it a problem of liquidity (availability of cash or other means of payment), or a matter of really not having enough resources to purchase the item?

-Can I perhaps save for it today and buy it in the future? Or would the item increase in price by the time I have enough money saved?

Lastly, I make sure that paying for such debt would not cause a great dent on my future quality of life. Technically, this could be achieved none other than by sitting in front of a calculator, pen and paper (or a spreadsheet) and start crunching the numbers.

When choosing a creditor, go with the one who offers the best terms of payment FOR YOU

You might ask, “How is it even possible to have a debt and live comfortably?”. It IS possible.

The first condition certainly would be to not overwhelm yourself with loans. Borrow only the amount that you are able to return.

Equally important is that this could be achieved if you invest time and effort in searching for a creditor whose terms of payments suit your situation.

Below, I’ve made a list of the most important purchases I’ve made on credit. All of them have one thing in common: I got them at 0% interest rate. This is where the time and effort came in: once I set my mind to getting something extra-special that needs a financial sacrifice (debts make you sacrifice your future purchasing capacity), I start browsing the market (virtually and physically) for different kinds of offer. Personally, I prefer to go to a physical store and talk to the salesperson. I’ve always gotten the best deals through one-on-one negotiations.

Some stores give you the option to determine how many installments (usually in months) you need to pay the credit off. In these cases, I always chose the least possible. The soonest I can get out of the debt, the better.

Past credits to stores:

  1. Bed: 8 months
  2. Thermomix: 3 months
  3. Wedding earrings: 3 months
  4. House appliances (dishwasher, refrigerator and microwave oven): 4 months

Credit card debts (payable 3 months after purchase):

  1. Plane tickets
  2. Hotel reservations

Outstanding debt:

  1. Student Loan

The role of emergency savings

It’s important for me to briefly discuss something about my outstanding debt.

As I’ve said, I don’t pay interest for this loan. So every month, a flat rate gets deducted from my bank account. This would go on until the principal amount has been paid off; and according to the terms I signed, it would still take some time before I see that day arrive. This is to say that the greatest risk I face is the suspension of my steady revenue flow before fully paying the loan; in my case, it will be unemployment.

Truth be told, I actually faced this situation not long ago. I lost my job, but luckily I was eligible to receive unemployment allowance. However that too, was a limited source of income. So when it got depleted, I had to tap my savings- my emergency savings. I had to set aside such amount that would allow for one whole year of payment for this loan while I search for a job. (I simply decided that it would take me one more year before getting back to work.)

Fortunately I am now back to having a salaried employment, and it didn’t take me one year!

Resultado de imagen de responsible debt

Image courtesy of: https://www.agingcare.com

So now, until that debt gets paid off, I consider each monthly installment just as I budget fixed household costs (ie: rent, electricity, water, food, etc…), like what my friend Edward mentioned in this post. At the same time, I exert a conscious effort to increase my savings, especially my emergency savings.

I am aware that most people’s idea of having emergency savings is for it to be used during a health crisis, a natural calamity or the death of a loved one. But emergency savings also have to cover whatever household needs there are when the regular flow of income is interrupted, or reduced.

DO NOT TAKE UP LOANS FOR THINGS YOU DON’T REALLY NEED

Half a year after having a regular job with a stable salary deposited in my bank account, I also started to receive letters from the bank informing that I have automatically secured a 3,000-Euro loan! I also got an instant approval to avail a “golden” credit card from the same bank. To top it all, my husband also got the same letters!

We just threw those in the garbage.

My husband and I could’ve enjoyed the “easy” money back then. But we decided to be frugal and live within our real means.

On Personal Loans

My attitude towards personal loans is even more strict and rigorous than with the formal ones. As far as relationships go, I try very hard not to let money get in the way. Actually, the best way to preserve a relationship is to set money matters aside. But when times get tough, to whom would one go for help? To a friend or family member, right?

In my limited experience on personal loans, I’ve always carefully chosen the people who I plan to borrow money from. They should be financially comfortable enough to lend the amount I will ask, without having to sacrifice their quality of living. They should also be people I greatly trust and who trust me equally. Additionally, I choose those who I believe are unafraid to call my attention in case I forget to pay, or give them the incorrect amount.

It’s very important to be clear that the money being passed from one person to another is eventually going to be returned the other way around. If you’re lucky to have a friend or family member who would insist that the money be a gift instead of a loan, then enjoy! Otherwise, be clear on the terms of payment: interest rate, installments, “deadline”, and so forth. Trust me, it’s not worth losing a loved one over money.

Responsible borrowing

Acquiring loans responsibly takes a lot of time and effort, just like any other “adulting” activity. Although compared with other “adulting” decisions, this will cause a direct and immediate effect on your quality of life in the near future- once the payments set in.

It would seem boring and tiresome but it’s worth thinking more than twice before deciding to take up a loan. Then once the decision has been made, it becomes even more important to take a moment to search for the most suitable creditor and to plan your new budget considering the periodic installments.

Borrowing responsibly also means being prepared for various risks that might mean having difficulty in making the payments (such as being unemployed). For this reason, it’s important to factor in an additional amount in one’s emergency savings when preparing the new budget.

One risk worth remembering is the temptation of acquiring an “easy” loan with seemingly “comfortable” terms and conditions. I have never heard of anybody live comfortably with a loan that was used for something they didn’t really need.

Lastly, responsible borrowing entails mixing personal and financial affairs the least possible. Though when inevitable, another round of reflection, research and budgeting has to be made, all in order to be able to live happily even when indebted.

Resultado de imagen de responsible borrowing

Image courtesy of: http://www.smartcampaign.org/

“One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present”- Golda Meir

Two things came to my mind upon reading Meir’s words:

  1. The past as we know it, has been documented and told by those who were “left standing” long enough. Others would simply say that “history is written by winners”.
  2. The only permanent thing in this world is change, so why shouldn’t we expect history to change as well? I’m not saying that it’s right, I’m saying it’s how things are.

On February 1944, George Orwell wrote a piece on how history is written by the winners. In it he stated that should his side win the war, they would tell fewer lies than their adversaries. Because the reality, as a TV show protagonist once said is that, “Truth is a battle of perceptions.”

Orwell further added that he would choose the most verifiable among the millions of instances which must be available. But wouldn’t the process of verification also be subject to the particular point of view of those participating in it?

The problem with the past as we know it is that no matter how many “facts” and “objective” measurements we are presented with (eg: the fact that a country had been under martial law, and the number of people who disappeared during the same period), they will always be laced with human perception. Such perspective will always try to slip past our critical and analytical minds, to reach our hearts and stir equally human feelings of either affinity or disdain to the initial observation.

The humanity in us easily makes us forget about the numbers, the facts, the objectivity of the past as we know it. And that is how we end up fighting and sometimes even insulting others- not to establish a fact, but to prove that we are right: that what we feel is THE legitimate and correct feeling, that what we believe is THE thing to believe in… within the uncontrolled realm of social media*, the famous “keyboard warriors” make it seem that suggestion outside of what others perceive is a lie, an idea forced through bribery or worse, a mere invention of creative minds.

Isn’t it sad? that instead of enriching ourselves in debate and trying to learn from an opposing perspective, our discussions on socio-econo-politic and especially in historic topics end up tallying who’s right and who’s wrong?

However, going back to erasing the past to fit the present…

On the one hand, I don’t agree it cannot be done. As a matter of fact, even if what already occurred can’t be undone, those living in the present can still modify data and information bit by bit until the desired effect is achieved. Even in those cases when data can be maintained intact, the interpretation of the said information can still be subject to the analyst’s own thinking (or agenda). So yes, this CAN be done.

On the other hand, no matter how improper it is to erase or alter the past as we know it, well, who doesn’t do it? the human mind is feeble and highly suggestive, while the soul can harbor various motives as well. And so no matter how many registered facts there are, no matter how many recorded events are available, people will always choose to believe what is convenient for them. So, even if it MUST NOT be done, human beings will always serve their best interest at the end of the day and overlook this little misdeed. (In fact, who’s to say that Meir was not guilty of this type of act?)

Dear reader, you might not notice it now but allow me to save you time: everything boils down to resource allocation. 

The “winners” who will proceed to write the story– ultimately turning into history- possess the power to influence which portions of the society get what percentage of resources. These could be time, money, attention, alliances, exposure, etc…

A very good example of this is the passing of the Spanish “Historical Memory Act”. Without embarking on a discussion of its relevance or utility, suffice it to say that this law was able to channel Spain’s limited resources into sectors which would otherwise be left in a state of disremembrance. (Some examples are: the identification and eventual exhumation of common graveyards, granting the Spanish nationality to families of the exiled and the removal of any symbol commemorating the military uprising.)

Due to the very nature of history (or the past as we know it), different interest groups will always resort to revisionism to establish their own version of truth.

This is what’s currently happening in the Philippines, where young Filipinos are being taught that the Marcos regime of dictatorship was the most glorious period of the country. Once again, it simply boils down to resource allocation; this time the resource being a seat in the political arena. For why else would these parties bother to convince a whole generation about the goodness of the former dictator, if not to reinstall his family and allies back to the Philippine politics?

The lesson I gather from this reflection is that we must be very vigilant of the kind of past being insisted as “what really happened”. We cannot and must not change the past what about the rest? we don’t hold anybody’s deeds and desires but our own. Yet, we can exert a small leverage in our communities even as we are neither historians nor big influencers.

Starting with ourselves, we should never lose sight of our past: the past as we were told, and the past as it is currently being recounted. Let us be indefatigable seekers of information, and let us be annoyingly non-conformists with the kind of facts lain before us.

More importantly, let us take ownership of that history. Let’s make it ours: just as we find ourselves to be part of a family, let us also make ourselves part of a town, a country, a global community.

With the knowledge that we have, we can then proceed to inquire, debate and refute any efforts of revisionism that we feel is not right.

Finally, let us exert a massive effort as a community, to reach out to the children- our future. Not only must we pass on to them the gathered knowledge that we have. We must also teach them how to collect the necessary information, where to get it, what questions to ask, to whom they should ask, how they should ask and to never be afraid to politely discuss anything that doesn’t satisfy them.

Golda Meir was a diplomat, politician and the fifth Prime Minister of Israel. Not wanting to question neither her sincerity nor her intentions for uttering those words, it is obvious that she has every interest in wanting to preserve the historical memory from her ancestors. But she was not alone in this task. Ever since the post-war period, every awareness creation effort has been made so that this dark chapter in human history will never be forgotten. And it must be said that this kind of tenacity is admirable, considering how many generations have passed and nobody has ever questioned the integrity of records about the violent pursuit of the Jewish community.

The past of her people, as well as her very own, made her understand the importance of preserving history: to learn from the past as we know it, allowing for hope in the achievement of a greater future.

 

* Social media is a fantastic platform for knowledge-distribution and idea-sharing initiatives.

Sources:

  1. The Economist quotes, available at: https://goo.gl/vWzDx3
  2. “History is Written by the Winners”, by George Orwell, available at: http://alexpeak.com/twr/hiwbtw/
  3. “All People are Living Histories- which is why History matters”, by Penelope J. Corfield, available at: http://www.history.ac.uk/makinghistory/resources/articles/why_history_matters.html
  4. “The Face that Launched a Thousand MiGs”, The Guardian, available at: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/aug/16/biography.politics

 

Adulting and Money Management 2.1: The Importance of Research

Author’s note: Please excuse last week’s absence of post. I was not able to better organize my schedule between researching about this article, managing side projects and settling in to our new home. Thank you for understanding. I do hope that the practicality of this post outweighs the lack of publishing several days ago.

This post complements the previous one (Adulting and Money Management 2: “Hooray, I have money! now what?”) that encourages channeling one’s savings into investment.

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Image courtesy of: http://www.vicsrc.org.au/

Introduction: “Adulting” and Research

The term “adulting” was coined to describe a group of people transitioning from youths to adults, associating the latter with a sense of responsibility, commitment, maturity and trustworthiness.

The Urban Dictionary online defines adulting (v) as:

“To do grown up things and hold responsibilities such as, a 9-5 job, a mortgage/rent, a car payment, or anything else that makes one think of grown ups.”

Research (n) has several analogous definitions, but the one I like most is from Dictionary.com:

“diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, applications, etc.”

I identified adulting with research because being responsible usually entails being aware the effect of certain factors, or what elements would be affected once a decision is made. It requires to be informed of the risks, costs and benefits of each resolution or judgement. As you might have guessed, the best way to achieve this is to gather as much information as possible; and if that can be done in a systematic and efficient manner, all the better.

I never really gave much thought about researching until I bumped my thick head to wall after wall of reality. After the 256th bump, I had to admit that INFORMATION IS VITAL (some say it’s power, others say it’s equivalent to money…); but to be more precise, ACCESSING THE RIGHT INFORMATION MARKS THE DIFFERENCE. Unfortunately, there is no short cut to knowing what the right information exactly is. Even if helpful peers point it out, what’s “right” for them might not be right for you. So really, the only way to do this correctly is to start making inquiries yourself.

Nobody ever told me about this- not even my teachers in college. You’d think that people in charge of molding future economically-oriented minds would consider relaying this message…

(Later on when I reviewed some of my notes, I realized how this message was indeed passed on in the form of riddles.)

Research related to investing

Anybody who wishes to get the most out of what he has to offer will not hesitate to gather the necessary data to choose the best option. They  will not stop at believing hearsay, although they will certainly consider that type of information.

Still, there are others who are too trusting, too optimistic, or simply too lazy. Just like me, they won’t be encouraged to be more diligent in researching until they’ve paid the price… because there are several steep prices for overlooking the process of research, and more so when it comes to (first-time) investing. In my case, these are:

  1. Money-wise: (the price to pay will be) the very amount of capital invested
  2. Emotionally: pride that got too bruised, discouraging any discussion about this experience with people who might actually help
  3. Psychologically: being  too traumatized to “trust” any financially-profitable opportunity for quite some time
  4. Opportunity cost-wise: having less less money, lower spirits and inferior resolve to invest once again. This could likely make one miss the chance to make money grow

What to research? How to research?

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Image courtesy of: http://innovationexcellence.com/

Performing an investigative task could be exhausting, especially when not used to it. Although I dare say that having one’s future at stake is surely an excellent incentive to do so.

From my point of view, I see two main aspects of research: the theoretical side (or the understanding) and the empirical side (the practical, “realistic” side). They require a lot of time and effort to be taken on, so you could be tempted to just focus your energy on one of them. But the truth is, both are too important for any of them to be ignored.

Suppose you’ve already decided how much you want to set aside to make your money grow; also suppose that you’re already sure of which type of investment you want to make; let’s also say that you’re currently convinced by a financial manager about the product/s he offers and that you’re very happy with what you’ve heard.

That’s fantastic because it means you won’t have to search for much more. Be that as it may, IT IS NOT THE SAME as not having to research anymore.

Theoretical research

In our proposed scenario, the main question to ask would be: What is the general understanding regarding the investment vehicle of your choice?

Even if you’re already content and convinced about the product that was offered to you, still it’s a good habit to read and re-read the brochure or any related document.

(Depending on the country where they operate) Most financial management companies are obliged to distribute a written communication, stating the product’s fundamental information to potential investors. This is very important because usually this is where the fine print lies.

To make a long story short: you might be interested to find out about the profitability of your venture, the different kinds of fees and commissions you’d be subjected to, how much tax you’d have to pay once you withdraw your capital earnings, what kinds of risks your investment is exposed to, etc… that is to say: by how much would your money potentially grow? How much would necessarily be deducted to your money once you’ve invested it? Is there any way to prevent it, or at least lessen the deductions to your future earnings? 

The second set of questions I suggest to be asked will surely empower those who are afraid of investing what savings they have acquired. It refers to one’s legal rights and obligations: Is there something in your country’s Constitution that would back you up, should you get into trouble (in the case of scams or bankruptcy)? What are your rights (ie: to invest and make your money grow) and obligations (ie: to pay taxes) according to the law? As for the financial services company, what are their rights (ie: to profit from rendering a service) and obligations (ie: transparency, honesty)?

In anything that you do, KNOW YOUR RIGHTS. ALWAYS KNOW YOUR RIGHTS. Consult a lawyer if you have to.

Empirical research

The most effective way to conduct empirical research would be to actually invest the money in your vehicle of choice. Just like a scientist observing a laboratory rat, you could closely monitor your investment with the help of your adviser.

Well, too bad for us- we can’t all have the luxury of “gambling” with our life savings. So for this type of research, I would mainly ask: What has been the experience of other (usually, older) people in this field?

Even if you’re already content and convinced about the product that was offered to you, talking to those who have already invested in the same product or a similar one could help. Most financial managers will hesitate to recount the negative experiences of some of their clients. So consider this: if you ask different kinds of investors (young, old, experts, newbies), they could only be too willing to warn you about not repeating the same mistakes they made. They may not share the secrets of their trade, but you could surely get some useful tips.

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Image courtesy of: http://www.easyfreeclipart.com/

Another important question to ask would be: What are other alternatives available in the market?

This question will most probably be answered by your fellow investors. But it’s always better to do your very own research. Remember that you want the best value for your hard-earned money. It’s not being greedy, it’s being wise. You’re not trying to outsmart anyone, you’re trying to educate yourself so you won’t be fooled.

Try informing yourself of the one or two better alternatives mentioned by other investors. Visit a financial service company’s office and ask all the questions you might have.

Benefits of research

Having done your research does not in any way reduce the risk of losing part (or all!) of your investment. It wouldn’t help you evade taxes either; but the results of your research will allow you to make decisions with more and better information. As a matter of fact, in the case where your decision turned out to be unfavorable, your research would’ve already provided you with enough knowledge that would orient you towards the most fitting solution.

Some might be wary of spending time to do research, even if it just meant comparing the profitability of different investment tools. Others might even think that they would do better investing their money already, instead of spending time talking to fellow investors. As respectable as this stance is, it is not advisable. Especially not to first time investors.

Undoubtedly, as you acquire more knowledge and experience about investment, you would spend less time and energy doing the basic research. By then, you would be informing yourself of different factors concerning other opportunities. You would know better who to talk to about one option or another. The task itself will not disappear, it will just take on a different turn.

Conclusions

People in the phase of “adulting” are automatically more prudent of their resources. Especially when it comes to their hard-earned savings. After all, that is the very essence of adulting: taking on more responsibilities and being more consistent with the decisions that were made.

One way to make adulting go a bit smoother is by taking time to research before going after one option or the other.

Whenever there is money involved, there is higher incentive to gather the right information. This becomes more evident when, along with the chance to make money grow, there is also a risk to lose part or all of it.

In general, there are two important aspects of research: the theoretical and the empirical. Both are equally important because they complement each other. That is to say, one cannot only mainly rely on hearsay when making an investment decision. And articles that are written in books, journals or magazines do not always play out the way they are supposed to. So one’s best bet would be to do both.

For the theoretical aspect, it would be wise to consult the documentation available in any financial services company. It is also highly advisable to be aware of the legal obligations and rights of both the investor and the investment company before establishing a financial relationship.

As for the empirical aspect, potential investors (especially the first-timers) would do good to talk to other investors. The latter group may not share their secret formula for success but they could warn about common mistakes and how to look out for scams. Lastly, it wouldn’t hurt to know what are the different alternatives that could fit an investor’s profile (those that adapt well to his current situation and future needs).

Researching wouldn’t make the risks go away. It wouldn’t lower the fees and commissions to be paid. Additionally, it doesn’t only take time and effort: some would also say it will make them miss the chance to invest immediately, thus losing money in the process. This type of opinion is respectable, but in the long run it will always prove to be worthwhile to exercise patience and diligence. Most people realize this too late along the way.

-The End-

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Image courtesy of: https://mulpix.com/ and http://emojipedia.org/

Adulting and Money Management 2: “Hooray, I have money! now what?”

To read the first part of the Adulting and Money Management Series, click here.

Money management becomes tricky as we grow older. To prove my point, try to remember when you were younger and you used to be so determined and focused to save whatever money you had. It could be to buy “that shirt”, “that book”, “that pair of shoes”, or even just to “put it in the bank”.

Didn’t you use to scrimp on buying snacks at school? didn’t you keep those envelopes containing cash- from your godparents- so you wouldn’t be tempted to use it? didn’t you try to outsmart your parents, siblings, or other family members to cover some of your expenses so that you could have more money, faster?

By the time we enter into adulthood, we start to be distracted from goals such as saving money or even increasing our income… There are just so many nice things to buy, a lot of delicious new food to taste, and look at all those places where we could travel- am I right?

Imagen relacionada

Image courtesy of: http://www.jocelynrish.com/

I don’t have the capacity to address all the above-mentioned concerns. However today, in the name of “adulting”, allow me to shine a spotlight on investment as an alternative to increase the money you have saved. And as a possible choice for investment, this post will also include a short discussion about Mutual Funds.

The completion of this second part of the Adulting and Money Management Series would not be possible without the very dependable Mr. Arnel Martil. His professional aid/opinion/words/common sense/truthslaps have truly made this post not only satisfactory, but also very beneficial to the reader.

Thank you very much, Arnel for your help!

-*-

Colorfulifesite (C): Arnel, what’s the difference between saving and investing? Which would you say is more important between the two? For instance, let’s say that I just received an inheritance or a huge bonus. Which should be my priority?

Arnel (A): The big difference between savings and investments is time.

Savings is usually money you set aside for short-term goals.

One reason you might want to save now is so you have some money to invest later. Money deposited into a savings account is usually very safe but would only earn a small amount of money in return. Another great thing about a savings account is you can get your money out of the account whenever you want.

When you say saving, you are just putting your money in a bank or as a reserve. It’s as if you’re hiding it under your pillow. It is a “parking place” where the “principal” or the amount you’ve saved is safe; it provides money for short term goals as well as emergencies.

By investing, you allow your money to grow. 

It accumulates money for long-term goals. You could lose your principal, but you have the opportunity to earn more money.

When you invest, you set your money aside for future income, benefit or profit to meet long-term goals. When you invest your money, there is no guarantee that your money will grow or increase. The earnings or losses from investments are usually more than what you would make or lose in a savings account. Investors recognize that it usually takes a long time to earn the big bucks, so most of the time they are in it for the long haul.

C: What would you say is the NUMBER ONE enemy of the people who are currently saving money? What’s the most effective technique you’ve applied to make sure you or your family could save?

A: Inflation is one of the downsides if we rely only on saving. It is an increase in price that makes a “market baskets” of goods and services more expensive over time- a silent killer of your finances. (Note: inflation reduces the value of your money because with the same amount, it can purchase less goods and services than before.)

For us to beat inflation, we should invest in investment vehicles like bonds, stocks, mutual fund, UITF or Unit Investment Trust Fund* (see Glossary at the end of the article for more information on terms with asterisks), or real estate. As an adviser, we do not discourage saving money in a bank account because you can recover and use that money 24/7 in case of an emergency. But if you want something for long term, like if you are planning for future education or personal retirement, invest in a vehicle that allows your money to grow if done right… annual returns of 50% is possible.

Regarding saving techniques, it really depends on the person’s budget; it should be such that his lifestyle wouldn’t be compromised. 

C: The most typical advice is the 20-60-20 rule, where 20% of a person’s income should go to savings and investment, 60% on essential expenses and 20% on discretionary expenses a.k.a. wants, rather than needs. (For some insight on budgeting and saving, see Colorfulifesite Blog’s post on making ends meet, here and proving that you could save, here.)

A: Just remember that the bottom line is saving for your future.

C: Suppose I’m now ready to invest- will it make sense for me to borrow the money I would put in the investment vehicle of my choice?

A: As an adviser I would say, before you decide to invest, you should settle your debts first.

You must start paying off the ones with small interest, and little by little, proceed by paying loans with bigger interest. The reason for this is you might have difficulties if you prioritize the debts with bigger interest, because there’s a tendency it might be too much for you and it could lead to you not being able to continue paying.

Once the debt is settled, you can then start to save and invest.

C: In my opinion, borrowing money can be a useful tool for money management. But it can also spell disaster for anyone who misuses it. Under the context of making your money grow, I believe that it only makes sense to take a loan when:

You are 100% sure that you could pay it off, interest plus principal, without sacrificing neither your current lifestyle nor your future prospects. (More of this on this series’ next post!)

A: You can be financially independent at any income level, but one should develop a certain behavior and discipline when saving and not to spend too much. However big your monthly salary is, even at 100 thousand per month, if your mentality is all about spending and spending, the end result will be an impoverished you.

C: Now, I noticed that mutual funds have been “a thing” for quite some time. What can you tell us about it?

A: Mutual funds are pooled investments which everyone can participate in. In the Philippines, it could be with capital as little as Php 5,000.00 (Colorfulifesite advises for you to consult your bank or financial adviser for the minimum capital requirements in your country).

It is a good investment option because they do not require much effort and time compared to others (e.g stocks, one’s own business). A professional fund manager handles your mutual fund. All you need to do is put in the money. In a mutual fund, you will become an investor, part-owner or shareholder of blue chips- nationally recognized, well-established and financially sound companies- where a mutual fund company has invested in.

Where I work, or in any mutual fund, historically in 5 years’ time, investment has been seen to double.

That’s why, we advice to lock in 5 years if people want to invest in a mutual fund.

C: I guess the time has come for me to share my own investment experience. You see, I invested a little money that I had before. Just like in a mutual fund, I was asked to lock my capital for a minimum of 5 years. I could put in more money, but I couldn’t withdraw it until after that period. However, when time came for me to recover my investment, I simply got the capital back! I was told by my adviser that it was due to the financial crisis. Now, what was I supposed to do with that? Of course I was happy I got the whole of my capital back, that I didn’t lose any money. But what a waste! I could’ve invested it in another product and at least earn 5% from it.

A: Maybe the investment you did at that time had an insurance added-on.

There is a product called a VUL** or Variable Universal Life Insurance where, aside from saving for your future your principal earns interest and it offers protection. It’s a sort of 2 in 1 product: life insurance ***plus mutual fund.

It is also a good investment since the money you save will grow and accumulate. The advantage of investing in any VUL products is it offers insurance or life protection, so in case the family breadwinner or the income generator has suddenly run out of time, his remaining family members would not suffer.

May I ask which company you invested in? How come the result was only a break even after 5 years?

C: The truth is, I remember which company it was, but I don’t remember the conditions. I think the problem was, I didn’t take it too seriously at that time… (facepalm)

A: Before you choose any type of investment, you must first do a background check of the company: their historical performances, how many years have then been operating- is it at least 10 years or 20 years?- so you could avoid scams. There’s no investment where you could earn money speedily, like let’s say, double your money in 2-4 weeks. There is an investment principle where we are advised to apply the RULE of 72****.

C: What can you say about my experience? Or worse, what can you say to those who lost money in their investments? Undeniably, many people are afraid of investing, and are afraid of the term “finance”, due to the crisis that hit us…  

A: As an adviser, I would say that before entering any investment scheme like stocks, mutual fund or UITF, you should first build the foundation of your investment by securing a life insurance, because the return on the investment tools I’ve mentioned is not guaranteed… In the case where a person secures a life insurance, if something happens or let’s say he or she will be “taken out of the picture”, there’s assurance for the surviving family members or beneficiaries that they wouldn’t be burdened or worried about how to go on with their financial life.

Life insurance could also help pay loans and other liabilities. It could be used to fund obligations like college education, car loan, house or lot… at least there will be money to pay them off. If the insured breadwinner dies, at least there will be resources to supply his surviving family’s needs.

C: That is a very interesting concept you introduced there, Arnel. In fact, an article I read explained it like this: When you don’t have assets built up (as young people do in their early-work life), you are most vulnerable. In case of an emergency, your family will have nothing to fall back on. So a life insurance is a good way to provide financial protection to your family even in your absence.

In another article, I learned that one of the wealth-building strategies we didn’t know about is to incorporate the use of whole life insurance as a strong basis for a solid investment plan. In fact, Investopedia defines this just the way you explained it:

Whole life insurance is a contract with premiums that includes insurance and investment components. The insurance component pays a predetermined amount when the insured individual dies. The investment component builds an accumulated cash value the insured individual can borrow against or withdraw.

A: If your investment of choice includes an insurance feature, it’s hard to say that you end up “losing” or “earning less”. There’s a guaranteed face amount***** or insurance amount in case of death, plus you can avail of riders****** or additional benefits like critical illness, hospital expenses and disability benefits. You could benefit from it in the long run.

C: Going back to my mishap… Needless to say, my experience made me afraid to invest again. So I just keep my money in a bank. However, it does make sense to also invest some of it especially if I were to increase the value of my money.

What are my other options? I’ve thought about bonds and stock options. But the truth is I know nothing! What advice could you give me?

A: All investments involve taking risk. It’s important that when you go into any investment in stocks, bonds or mutual funds you have a full understanding that you could lose some or all of your money in any one investment. There is really risk in investment, and there’s no guarantee.

It is often said that the greater the risk, the greater the potential reward in investing, but taking on unnecessary risk is often avoidable. An investor’s best alternative to protect themselves against risk is by spreading their money among various investments, hoping that if one investment loses money, the other investments will make up for those losses. This strategy, called “diversification” which can be neatly summed up as, “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.”

Once you’ve saved money for investing, consider carefully all your options and think about what diversification strategy makes sense for you.

Diversification can’t guarantee that your investments won’t suffer if the market drops. But it can improve the chances that you won’t lose money, or that if you do, it won’t be as much as if you weren’t diversified.

Just don’t put “all your eggs” in a bank because imagine if you have 2 million Philipine Pesos (Php) saved in a bank then all of a sudden, it gets bankrupt. Take note that the maximum loss that could be covered by banks in the Philippines is 5oo thousand pesos…

Or suppose that a depositor has millions of money in a bank during times of economic and financial uncertainties. Imagine if the bank discovered that the depositor died- accounts will automatically be frozen, no cash withdrawal could be done and to top it all, the money is subject for estate tax. 

I must say that it would be the main difference between investing in a bank or in a financial services company like where I work (he he): one advantage about investing in a financial services firm is that the client has the possibility to choose that all proceeds may be free from whithholding and estate taxes. Unlike in banks, where the gains an investor acquires are subject to those two taxes, aside from the “normal” ones the government would require.

This is not to discredit banks, but just to put things in perspective with your readers.

C: Let’s say I finally dare to invest in mutual funds. Should I also diversify according to my objectives? For instance, I want to save for a down payment to buy a house? Or I’m thinking of saving for my son’s college education? That’s already 2 objectives.

Won’t I end up paying more than I should, or in other words: won’t I end up earning less than I could? 

A: The answer depends on when you will need the money, your goals, and if you will be able to sleep at night if you purchase a risky investment where you could lose your principal.

For instance, if you are saving for retirement, and you have 35 years before you retire, you may want to consider riskier investment products, knowing that if you stick to only the “savings” products or to less risky investment products, your money will grow too slowly—or, given inflation and taxes, you may lose the purchasing power of your money. A frequent mistake people make is putting money they will not need for a very long time in investments that pay a low amount of interest.

On the other hand, if you are saving for a short-term goal, five years or less, you don’t want to choose risky investments, because when it’s time to sell, you may have to take a loss. Since investments often move up and down in value rapidly, you want to make sure that you can wait and sell at the best possible time.

Time is money.

As we would say in my company, “The best time to invest was yesterday, the next best time is today. And the worst time is tomorrow. Because sometimes tomorrow becomes never.”

-The End-

Mr. Martil is a financial adviser in a leading international financial services company. He is a loving husband and father to his family. Likewise, you were able to witness what a kind and reliable friend he is- generous enough to spend time with Colorfulifesite Blog and answer some of the very basic questions about investment and mutual funds.

Glossary:

*UITF- Unit Investment Trust Funds (UITFs) are ready-made investments that allow the pooling of funds from different investors with similar investment objectives. These funds are managed by professional fund managers and are invested in various financial instruments such as money market securities, bonds and equities, which are normally available to bigger investors only. (Source: http://www.bdo.com.ph)

**VUL-Variable universal life insurance (VUL) is a form of cash-value life insurancethat offers both a death benefit and an investment feature. (Source: http://www.investopedia.com)

It is a life insurance policy that combines the features of variable life insurance and universal life insurance. Where the former constitutes a fixed premium insurance policy that provides a return based on the income performance of an investment portfolio. While the latter combines the benefits of an adjustable premium, adjustable coverage term life insurance, and a savings account. (Source: http://www.businessdictionary.com)

***Life insurance- Insurance cover that serves two major purposes: (1) to substitute for the insured’s income if he or she dies, and (2) to qualify the insured for favorable tax treatment. The policy holders buy insurance cover from an insurance company, and pay specific periodic amounts (premiums) for the term (duration or life) of the policy. If the insured dies before the this term is completed, a guaranteed sum (the face amount of the policy) is paid to one or more named beneficiaries. If the insured survives the term then, depending on the type of the policy, he or she may receive the full or a part of the face amount of the policy. (Souce: http://www.businessdictionary.com)

****Rule of 72- The “rule of 72” is a simplified way to calculate how long an investment takes to double, given a fixed annual rate of interest. You divide 72 by the annual rate of return you receive on your investments, and that number is a rough estimate of years it takes to double your money. For example, $1 invested at 10% takes 7.2 years (72 divided by 10) to turn into $2. (Source: http://www.usatoday.com)

*****Face amount- Sum of money for which an insurance cover is obtained, usually shown on the top sheet (face) of the policy. In life insurance, face amount is the sum paid on the policy’s maturity date, on the death of the insured, or (if the policy terms permit) on his or her total disability. (Source: http://www.businessdictionary.com)

******Riders- Additional clause, document, or slip of paper that adds, alters, amends, or removes the provisions of an associated or attached agreement or contract (such as an insurance policy) or a negotiable instrument. (Source: ww.businessdictionary.com)

Sources:

  1. Investopedia
  2. Business Dictionary
  3. “How Do You Make Money from UITF Investing?”, by Fitz, Ready to Be Rich Blogsite, available at: https://fitzvillafuerte.com/how-do-you-make-money-from-uitf-investing.html
  4. Unit Investment Trust Funds, available at BDO website: https://www.bdo.com.ph/personal/trust-and-investments/unit-investment-trust-funds
  5. “Doubling Your Money: The Rule of 72”, by Wes Moss, Advice IQ, USA Today, available at: http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/personalfinance/2015/04/25/adviceiq-doubling-your-money/26339307/
  6. “The #1 Wealth Building Strategy You Don’t Know About”, by Paradigmlife Blogsite, available at: http://paradigmlife.net/blog/the-1-wealth-building-strategy/
  7. “Are You Building a Strong Foundation for Creating Wealth?”, available at: http://www.firstpost.com/investing/are-you-building-a-strong-foundation-for-creating-wealth-2682980.html